Gland/Tissue
Hormones
Major Functions
Chemical Structure
Hypothalamus
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Stimulates secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin
Peptide
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Causes release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Peptide
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Causes release of growth hormone
Peptide
Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH) (somatostatin)
Inhibits release of growth hormone
Peptide
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Causes release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Dopamine or prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF)
Inhibits release of prolactin
Amine
Anterior pituitary
Growth hormone
Stimulates protein synthesis and overall growth of most cells and tissues
Peptide
TSH
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine)
Peptide
ACTH
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of adrenocortical hormones (cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone)
Peptide
Prolactin
Promotes development of the female breasts and secretion of milk
Peptide
FSH
Causes growth of follicles in the ovaries and sperm maturation in Sertoli cells of testes
Peptide
LH
Stimulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells of testes; stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in ovaries
Peptide
Posterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (also called vasopressin)
Increases water reabsorption by the kidneys and causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure
Peptide
Oxytocin
Stimulates milk ejection from breasts and uterine contractions
Peptide
Thyroid
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
Increases the rates of chemical reactions in most cells, thus increasing body metabolic rate
Amine
Calcitonin
Promotes deposition of calcium in the bones and decreases extracellular fluid calcium ion concentration
Peptide
Adrenal cortex
Cortisol
Has multiple metabolic functions for controlling metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; also has anti-inflammatory effects
Steroid
Aldosterone
Increases renal sodium reabsorption, potassium secretion, and hydrogen ion secretion
Steroid
Adrenal medulla
Norepinephrine, epinephrine
Same effects as sympathetic stimulation
Amine
Pancreas
Insulin (β cells)
Promotes glucose entry in many cells, and in this way controls carbohydrate metabolism
Peptide
Glucagon (α cells)
Increases synthesis and release of glucose from the liver into the body fluids
Peptide
Parathyroid
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Controls serum calcium ion concentration by increasing calcium absorption by the gut and kidneys and releasing calcium from bones
Peptide
Testes
Testosterone
Promotes development of male reproductive system and male secondary sexual characteristics
Steroid
Ovaries
Estrogens
Promotes growth and development of female reproductive system, female breasts, and female secondary sexual characteristics
Steroid
Progesterone
Stimulates secretion of “uterine milk” by the uterine endometrial glands and promotes development of secretory apparatus of breasts
Steroid
Placenta
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Promotes growth of corpus luteum and secretion of estrogens and progesterone by corpus luteum
Peptide
Human somatomammotropin
Probably helps promote development of some fetal tissues as well as the mother’s breasts
Peptide
Estrogens
See actions of estrogens from ovaries
Steroid
Progesterone
See actions of progesterone from ovaries
Steroid
Kidney
Renin
Catalyzes conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (acts as an enzyme)
Peptide
1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
Increases intestinal absorption of calcium and bone mineralization
Steroid
Erythropoietin
Increases erythrocyte production
Peptide
Heart
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Increases sodium excretion by kidneys, reduces blood pressure
Peptide
Stomach
Gastrin
Stimulates HCl secretion by parietal cells
Peptide
Small intestine
Secretin
Stimulates pancreatic acinar cells to release bicarbonate and water
Peptide
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Stimulates gallbladder contraction and release of pancreatic enzymes
Peptide
Adipocytes
Leptin
Inhibits appetite, stimulates thermogenesis
Peptide

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